Bulletin of the Geological Society of Malaysia, Volume 49, April 2004, pp. 145 - 156
School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Geology and Geophysics, University of Adelaide, Adelaide 5005, South Australia
Abstract: Some Karstinselberge are initiated by descending meteoric or vadose waters which weather the rock exposed in steeply dipping fractures just below the land surface. Others originate as domical or conical projections at the deep weathering front as a result of differential weathering by phreatic waters. The residuals are developed on compartments of rock that are massive, by contrast with well-jointed surrounding areas. These etch types are exposed in stages, and are converted to steep-sided towers by undercutting of the basal slope, commonly as a result of scarp-foot weathering, and consequent collapse of the slopes above. Reinforcement effects operate, with the exposed rock weathered less rapidly than the still-covered. Karst towers can be regarded as part-covered forms for they evolve partly before, partly after, exposure.