Classification of excavated material based on simple laboratory testings

Author : Mohd For bin Mohd Amin
Publication : Bulletin of the Geological Society of Malaysia
Page : 179-190
Volume Number : 38
Year : 1995

Bulletin of the Geological Society of Malaysia, Volume 38, Dec. 1995, pp. 179 – 190

Classification of excavated material based on simple laboratory testings


Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia


Abstract: During the past decade the norm of contract specification on earthwork is to classify the method of excavation based on two category of materials, either soil or rock. The problem arises from an unclassified intermediate material which does not fit the description as documented in the contract specification. Failure to address this problem in the contract document may result in delays and an increased in project cost is unavoidable.

Four types of tests were proposed to assess the engineering properties of the material which are related to mode of excavation. The tests comprise of physical property test, Schmidt rebound hammer test, sonic velocity test and point-load test. The engineering properties derived from these tests may be used as a basis for argument that the material being excavated exhibits similar engineering behavior as rock.

Data obtained from these tests were plotted against standard charts used by construction machinery supplier and the plotted values may serve as guidelines in selecting the suitable method of excavation.