Bulletin of the Geological Society of Malaysia, Volume 3, March 1970, pp. 9 – 15
University of Malaya
Abstract: Monsoon-controlled currents along the eastern shoreline of Malaya are predominantly southward throughout the year for the tract between latitudes 3°N to 5°N, whereas the other coastal stretches are subjected to mainly north-northwestward currents. These dominant current senses affect the directional displacements of lower stream courses. Beach ridges tend to develop on the downcurrent sides of river outlets as the result of the longshore current directions during the wet monsoon when the streams are transporting the bulk of their annual load.
The step-like (in plan) protuberances of the eastern shoreline mainly reflect the en echelon arrangement of resistant rock bodies. These asymmetrical head lands may maintain their shapes if the shorter sides face into the current, but the "risers" (defined in the text) will gradually become smooth shorelines through sedimentation if they occur on the leeward sides of headlands.