Bulletin of the Geological Society of Malaysia, Volume 73, May 2022, pp. 151 - 161
Irfan Sh. Asaad
Department of Earth Sciences and Petroleum, College of Science, Salahaddin University-Erbil, 44002 Kirkuk Road, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
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Abstract: Microfacies analysis and depositional environment of the Pila Spi Formation (Middle-Late Eocene) were studied in the Nerwa outcrop, Berat anticline, High Folded Zone in Iraqi Kurdistan Region. The total thickness of the formation is 13.5 m composed of medium to thick bedded yellow to white limestone and thick bedded grey to white dolomitic limestone. It is interbedded with thin beds of yellow marl in the lower part and have chert nodules in the upper part. The petrographic study of 17 thin sections of the Pila Spi carbonate showed that the majority of the carbonates are micritic mixed with some microspar. The skeletal grains involve benthonic foraminifera, ostracods, mollusca, dasycladacean green algae, pelecypods, gastropods, rare planktonic foraminifera and bioclasts. Non skeletal grain included peloids, intraclasts and extraclasts which is mainly monocrystalline quartz grain. Based on field observations and petrographic analysis, three different lithological units were distinguished in the Pila Spi Formation in the studied section. They are in ascending order: medium to thick bedded limestone interbedded with marl unit, thick bedded dolomitic limestone unit and, cherty limestone unit. Depending on detailed microfacies analysis of carbonate rocks, three main microfacies and twelve submicrofacies were recognized in the studied section of the Pila Spi Formation. From the sum of all petrographic, facies and textural analyses, it is here concluded that Pila Spi Formation in the Nerwa section was deposited at subtidal semi-restricted lagoon, in lower part gradually changed to open lagoon environment toward the upper part.
Keywords: Eocene, microfacies analysis, depositional environment, Pila Spi, Iraq
0126-6187; 2637-109X / Published by the Geological Society of Malaysia.
© 2022 by the Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) License 4.0.