Bulletin of the Geological Society of Malaysia, Volume 73, May 2022, pp. 67 – 77
Occurrence and relationship of the Aqra, Bekhme and Govanda formations in the Soran (Rawanduz) area, Kurdistan Region, northeastern Iraq
Kamal H. Karim1, Hiyam Daoud2, Rzger A. Abdula3,4,*, Arkan O. Sharezwri3
1 Department of Geology, College of Science, University of Sulaimani, PO Box 1432, Kurdistan Regional Government, Iraq
2 Department of Dam, College of Engineering, University of Sulaimani, PO Box 1576, Kurdistan Regional Government, Iraq
3 Department of Petroleum Geoscience, Soran University, PO Box 624, Kurdistan Regional Government, Iraq
4 Department of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, Tishk International University, Kurdistan Regional Government, Iraq
* Corresponding author email address: email@example.com
Abstract: The present study focuses on the presentation of field and laboratory evidences for the first record of the Aqra Formation (Maastrichtian) outcrop at the top of the Tanjero Formation in the Soran area, Erbil Governorate. The previous studies indicated its outcrops as Middle Miocene Govanda Formation between Merga Red Bed Series and Tanjero Formation. The present study discusses relations of this outcrop with Govanda and Bekhme formations in the Sulaimani and Duhok governorates in terms of environment and tectonics. In the Soran area, the formation has variable thickness ranging between 2-160 m and underlies either Red Bed Series or Govanda Formation (Middle Miocene). The study documented many stratigraphic and paleontological evidences to prove occurrence of the Aqra Formation in the area. Additionally, we discussed the significance of its occurrence in detail by which many tectonic and stratigraphic issues of the area are unlocked. One of the issues is occurrence of Tanjero Formation between the Aqra and Bekhme formations and it separates the two formations in two different age ranges and tectonic episodes. Another issue is the documentation of the occurrence of the Aqra Formation inside the Thrust Zone by which the distribution of the formation is extendable beyond Main Zagros Thrust Fault. The study includes a detailed stratigraphic column and tectonic model of the formation to show the coastal area, patchy reef, and shelf environment of the Aqra Formation.
Keywords: Aqra Formation, Bekhme Formation, Govanda Formation, Kometan Formation, Maastrichtian carbonate, Zagros Foreland Basin
0126-6187; 2637-109X / Published by the Geological Society of Malaysia.
© 2022 by the Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) License 4.0.