Bulletin of the Geological Society of Malaysia, Volume 75, May 2023, pp. 25 – 36
John Kuna Raj
No. 83, Jalan Burhanuddin Helmi 2, Taman Tun Dr. Ismail, 60000 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Author email address: email@example.com
Abstract: The weathering profile can be separated into an upper, 11.8 m thick pedological soil (zone I) comprising gravelly clayey sands and a lower, >31.9 m thick saprock (zone II) consisting of gravelly silty sands with distinct preservation of the minerals, textures and structures of the original granitic bedrock material and mass. Zone I can be separated into A, B and C soil horizons, whilst zone II can be differentiated into sub-zones IIA, IIB, IIC and IID based on differences in preservation of relict structures and content of core-boulders. The earth materials of zone I represent rock mass weathering grade VI, whilst those of sub-zones IIA and IIB represent grade V, and those of sub-zones IIC and IID represent grades IV and III respectively. Constant volume samples show the earth materials to have variable dry unit weights (11.98 to 17.66 kN/m3), but a limited range in specific gravity (2.62 to 2.70) due to similar primary and secondary minerals. The zone I earth materials have relatively large clay contents (>19%) and are more porous (33% to 55%) than those of zone II (36% to 44%) which have large silt contents (>23%). Sand contents are more variable (23% to 44%) though relatively large total sand and gravel contents (37% to 68%) point to the original, coarse grained granitic bedrock. Increasing clay contents (of kaolinite and illite) up the profile, and a corresponding decrease in silt contents (of mainly sericite), reflect increasing alteration of the bedrock; a feature also shown by increasing values of the textural weathering index (Iw). Distinct preservation of granitic textures and structures in saprock (zone II) indicate in situ alteration of bedrock; weathering resulting from gradual lowering of an unconfined groundwater table.
Keywords: Sheared biotite-muscovite granite, weathering profile characterization, pedological soil, saprock
ASTM, American Society for Testing and Materials, 1970. Special Procedures for Testing Soil and Rock for Engineering Purposes. Special Publication 479, American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, 630 p.
Aydin, A., 2006. Stability of saprolitic slopes: nature and role of field scale heterogeneities. Natural Hazards Earth System Sciences, 6, 89-96.
Baynes, F.J., Dearman, W.R. & Irfan, T.Y., 1978. Practical assessment of grade in a weathered granite. Bulletin International Association Engineering Geology, 18, 101-109.
Carroll, D., 1970. Rock Weathering. Plenum Press, New York, 203 p.
CEB, Central Electricity Board of the Federation of Malaya, 1962. Report on Batang Padang Hydro-electric Scheme. Volume 3, Geological Investigations. Preece, Cardew & Rider, Consulting Engineers, London S.W.1., 50 p.
Cobbing, E.J., Pitfield, P.E.J., Darbyshire, D.P.F. & Mallick, D.I.J., 1992. The granites of the southeast Asian Tin Belt. British Geological Survey Overseas Memoir 10, 369 p.
Dearman, W.R., 1974. Weathering classification in the characterization of rock for engineering purposes in British practice. Bulletin International Association Engineering Geology, 9, 33-42.
Dearman, W.R., 1976. Weathering classification in the characterization of rock – A review. Bulletin International Association Engineering Geology, 13, 123-127.
Deer, W.A., Howie, R.A. & Zussman, J., 1977. An Introduction to the Rock Forming Minerals. Longman Group Limited, London, 528 p.
Deere, D.V. & Patton, F.D., 1971. Slope stability in residual soils. Proceedings 6th Pan-American Conference Soil Mechanics & Foundation Engineering Puerto Rico, 1, 87-170.
GCO, Geotechnical Control Office, 1988. Guide to Rock and Soil Descriptions, Geoguide 3. Geotechnical Control Office, Hong Kong, 186 p.
Gobbett, D.J., 1965. The Lower Palaeozoic rocks of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Federation Museums Journal, 9, 67-79.
Hamdan, J. & Burnham, C.P., 1996. The contribution of nutrients from parent materials in three deeply weathered soils of Peninsular Malaysia. Geoderma, 74, 219-233.
Hamdan, J. & Burnham, C.P., 1997. Physico-chemical characteristics of three saprolites in Peninsular Malaysia. Communications Soil Science & Plant Analysis, 28, 1817-1834.
IAEG, International Association Engineering Geology, 1981. Rock and soil description for engineering geological mapping. Bulletin International Association Engineering Geology, 24, 235-274.
ISRM, International Society for Rock Mechanics, 1981. Rock Characterization, Testing and Monitoring: ISRM Suggested Methods, T. Brown (Ed.), 211 p.
ISRM, International Society for Rock Mechanics, 2015. The ISRM Suggested Methods for Rock Characterization, Testing and Monitoring: 2007-2014, 2015 Edition, R. Ulusay (Ed.), 211 p.
Irfan, T.Y. & Dearman, W.R., 1978. The engineering petrography of a weathered granite in Cornwall, England. Quarterly Journal Engineering Geology, 11, 233-244.
JKR, Jabatan Kerja Raya Malaysia, Public Works Department Malaysia, 2007. Guidelines for hard material/rock excavation. Technical Note (Roads) 24/05, Road Division Jabatan Kerja Raya Malaysia, 15 p.
Lan, H.X., Hu, R.L., Yue, Z.Q., Fee, C.F. & Wang, S.J., 2003. Engineering and geological characteristics of granite weathering profiles in South China. Journal Asian Earth Sciences, 21, 353-364.
Lee, S.G. & de Freitas, M.H., 1989. A revision of the description and classification of weathered granite and its application to granites in Korea. Quarterly Journal Engineering Geology, 22, 31-48.
Little, A.L., 1969. The engineering classification of residual tropical soils. Proceedings 7th International Conference Soil Mechanics & Foundation Engineering, Mexico, 1, 1-10.
Martin, C.P. & Hencher, S.R., 1986. Principles for description and classification of weathered rock for engineering purposes. In: Hawkins, A.B. (Ed.), Site Investigation Practice, Assessing BS 5930, Engineering Geology Special Publication 2, Geological Society London, 299-308.
Moye, D.G., 1955. Engineering geology for the Snowy Mountains scheme. Journal Institution Engineers Australia, 27, 287-298.
Ng, T.F., 1992. Petrography, structure and geotechnical studies of the Kuala Lumpur Granite, eastern part of Kuala Lumpur, Peninsular Malaysia. M.Phil. Thesis, Institute for Advanced Studies, University of Malaya, 527 p.
Ng, T.F., Raj, J.K. & Azman A. Ghani, 2013. Potential Alkali- Reactivity of granite aggregates in the Bukit Lagong, area, Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia. Sains Malaysiana, 42, 773-781.
Poppe, L.J., Paskevich, V.F., Hathaway, J.C. & Blackwood, B.S., 2001. A Laboratory Manual for X-Ray Powder Diffraction. United States Geological Survey Open-File Report 01-041. 88 p.
Rahardjo, H., Aung, K.K., Leong, E.C. & Rezaur, R.B., 2004. Characteristics of residual soils in Singapore as formed by weathering. Engineering Geology, 73, 157-169.
Raj, J.K., 1985. Characterization of the weathering profile developed over a porphyritic biotite granite bedrock in Peninsular Malaysia. Bulletin International Association Engineering Geology, 32, 121-128.
Raj, J.K., 2009. Geomorphology. In: Hutchison, C.S. & Tan, D.N.K. (Eds.), Geology of Peninsular Malaysia. University of Malaya & Geological Society of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 5-29.
Raj, J.K., 2018. Physical characterization of a deep weathering profile over rhyolite in humid tropical Peninsular Malaysia. Geotechnical & Geological Engineering, 36, 3793-3809.
Ruxton, B.P. & Berry, L., 1957. The weathering of granite and associated erosional features in Hong Kong. Bulletin Geological Society of America, 68, 1263-1292.
Tandarich, J.P., Darmody, R.G., Follmer, L.R. & Johnson, D.L., Historical development of soil and weathering profile concepts from Europe to the United States of America. Journal Soil Science Society of America, 66, 335-346.
Thorez, J., 1975. Phyllosilicates and Clay Minerals – A Laboratory Handbook for Their X-Ray Diffraction Analysis. G. Lelotte, Belgium, 582 p.
Thomas, M.F., 1974. Tropical Geomorphology – A study of weathering and landform development in warm climates. MacMillan Press Limited, London, 332 p.
USBR, United States Bureau of Reclamation, 1974. Earth Manual. United States Government Printing Office, Washington, 810 p.
Wentworth, C.K., 1922. A scale for grade and class terms for clastic sediments. Journal Geology, 30, 377-392.
Yusari, H.B., 1993. Geology of Batu Dam-Kancing area with emphasis on geochemistry and petrology of granitic rocks. B.Sc. (Hons) Dissertation, Department of Geology, University of Malaya, 142 p.
Manuscript received 7 September 2022;
Received in revised form 13 April 2023;
Accepted 15 April 2023
Available online 26 May 2023
0126-6187; 2637-109X / Published by the Geological Society of Malaysia.
© 2023 by the Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) License 4.0.