Ion adsorption-type rare earth element deposits in western Peninsular Malaysia: A case study in Bukit Enggang Granite, Kedah

Final Front
Author : Fakhruddin Afif Fauzi*, Edwin James, Muhammad Sufi Musa, Hamdan Ariffin, Abdullah Sulaiman, Mahat Sibon, Abdul Hadi Abdul Rahman, Muhammad Falah Zahri, Azizan Ali
Publication : Bulletin of the Geological Society of Malaysia
Page : 27 - 45
Volume Number : 76
Year : 2023

Bulletin of the Geological Society of Malaysia, Volume 76, November 2023, pp. 27 – 45

Ion adsorption-type rare earth element deposits in western Peninsular Malaysia: A case study in Bukit Enggang Granite, Kedah

Fakhruddin Afif Fauzi1,*, Edwin James2, Muhammad Sufi Musa3, Hamdan Ariffin1, Abdullah Sulaiman4, Mahat Sibon5, Abdul Hadi Abdul Rahman6, Muhammad Falah Zahri3, Azizan Ali1

1 Department of Mineral and Geoscience Kedah/Perlis/P. Pinang, Jln. Perak, Off Jalan Putra, 05150 Alor Setar, Kedah, Malaysia
2 Sabah Mineral Management, Block D, Unit 23A & 23, 5th Floor, Phase 1 KK Times Square, 88100 K. Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia
3 Technical Service Division, Department of Mineral and Geoscience Malaysia, Jln Sultan Azlan Shah, 31400 Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia
4 Department of Mineral and Geoscience Malaysia HQ, Level 9, Menara PjH, Jln Tun Abdul Razak, Precint 2, 62100 Putrajaya, Malaysia
5 Department of Mineral and Geoscience Perak, Jln Sultan Azlan Shah, 31400 Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia
6 Department of Mineral and Geoscience Selangor/W. Persekutuan, Level 6 & 7, Bangunan Darul Ehsan, Seksyen 14, 40000 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia

*Corresponding author email address:

Abstract: This paper reports on the rare earth element (REE) deposit in Bukit Enggang Granite in Sik, Kedah, and its enrichment patterns. The granitic rock in the study area is porphyritic biotite granite with K-feldspar, quartz and biotite as the main minerals, with randomly arranged K-feldspar phenocrysts. The average REE content in rock samples is 340.9 ppm. The exposed weathered profiles are between 3 to 7 meters in thickness. The C horizon is thicker than the B horizon. The average REE content in soil samples taken from the weathered profiles is 943.9 ppm. Interpretations from laboratory results reveal that the REE deposit in the study area is of the ion adsorption-type, with the REE enrichment in the weathered profiles originating from easily weathered REE bearing minerals in the parent rock, rather than highly resistant minerals like monazite, xenotime and zircon.

Keywords: REE, ion adsorption clay, Bukit Enggang, Kedah, monazite


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Manuscript received 10 November 2022;
Received in revised form 18 May 2023;
Accepted 24 May 2023
Available online 29 November 2023


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