Fracture model and structural history of Gunung Keriang, Kedah

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Author : Muhammad Amzar Bin Aznan*,Nasrul Azmin Bin Mansor, Choong Chee Meng, Siti Sarah Binti Ab Rahman, Muhammad Aslam Md Yusof, Muhammad Azfar Bin Mohamed
Publication : Bulletin of the Geological Society of Malaysia
Page : 37-46
Volume Number : 77
Year : 2024

Bulletin of the Geological Society of Malaysia, Volume 77, May 2024, pp. 37 – 46

Fracture model and structural history of Gunung Keriang, Kedah

Muhammad Amzar Bin Aznan1,2,*,Nasrul Azmin Bin Mansor1,2, Choong Chee Meng2, Siti Sarah Binti Ab Rahman2, Muhammad Aslam Md Yusof3, Muhammad Azfar Bin Mohamed3

1 Faculty of Science and Marine Environment, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia

2 Digital Geoscience Global, Unit 13-9 Binjai 8, Lorong Binjai, 50400 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

3 Petroleum Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP), 32610 Seri Iskandar, Perak D.R., Malaysia

* Corresponding author email address:

Abstract: Gunung Keriang is a limestone hill in Kedah, northwest Peninsular Malaysia, with well-bedded limestones that gently dip towards the SW and SE, forming N-S trending gentle folds. Fractures are prevalent at both regional and local scales, with three major fracture sets identified: NW-SE, N-S, and NE-SW, all of which are steep to vertically dipping. These fracture sets and their characteristics have been thoroughly analyzed and summarized in this study. The NW-SE fractures have an average length of 137.2 m with a spacing of 92.3 m, the N-S fractures average 120 m in length with 81.3 m spacing, and the NE-SW fractures average 101.6 m in length with 72.7 m spacing. The limestone deposits in Gunung Keriang were formed in a partially unstable shallow marine environment during the Early Permian to Early Triassic period. Subsequently, the Late Triassic collision between the Sibumasu and Indochina terranes led to the formation of N-S trending gentle folds, N-S tension gashes, and potential conjugate fracture sets (NW-SE and NE-SW direction) due to E-W compression. The ensuing uplift exposed the Gunung Keriang limestone and caused extensive dissolution, particularly along fractures.

Keywords: Deformation, fracture sets, Gunung Keriang, structures


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Manuscript received 25 May 2023;
Received in revised form 7 September 2023;
Accepted 17 October 2023
Available online 30 May 2024

0126-6187; 2637-109X / Published by the Geological Society of Malaysia.
© 2024 by the Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) License 4.0.