The potential of acid mine drainage formation at Bukit Besi, Dungun, Terengganu

Author : Nuur Hani Mohammed, Wan Zuhairi Wan Yaacob
Publication : Bulletin of the Geological Society of Malaysia
Page : 161 - 168
Volume Number : 74
Year : 2022

Bulletin of the Geological Society of Malaysia, Volume 74, November 2022, pp. 161 – 168

The potential of acid mine drainage formation at Bukit Besi, Dungun, Terengganu

Nuur Hani Mohammed1,2,*, Wan Zuhairi Wan Yaacob1

1 Program Geologi, Pusat Pengajian Sains Sekitaran dan Sumber Alam, Fakulti Sains dan Teknologi, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia

2 No. 24, Jalan Kp 2/2 Taman Kota Perdana, Bandar Putra Permai, 43300 Seri Kembangan, Selangor, Malaysia

* Corresponding author email address:


Abstract: Acid mine drainage (AMD) at Bukit Besi is often accompanied by high concentrations of various heavy metal such as iron, lead, copper, zink, cadmium, manganese, nikel, and arsenic. The samples were collected from active mining site at Cheng Yu, Bukit Besi. The physical and chemical tests used are ion chromatography (IC) and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) test, toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), and clay mineralogy using XRF (X-ray fluorescence) and XRD (X-ray diffraction) techniques. Static test which is acid-base counting are used to predict the potential of AMD. The water analysis showed a very acidic water with pH < 3.5 with high concentration of heavy metals like Fe (822.03 mg/L) and sulfate (4455.87 mg/L). Acid-bases rock calculation shows highly significant results which have high potential of acid production (9.5 to 155.0 kg CaCO3/ton). The results from physical and chemical analysis show Bukit Besi area is potentially exposed to formation of acid mine drainage.


Keywords: Acid mine drainage, heavy metal, acid-base accounting, adsorption analysis



Potensi pembentukan saliran lombong berasid di Bukit Besi, Dungun, Terengganu


Abstrak: Saliran lombong berasid (SLB) di Bukit Besi berkait dengan kepekatan pelbagai
logam berat yang tinggi seperti besi, plumbum, kuprum, zink, kadmium, mangan,
nikel dan arsenik. Sampel kajian diperoleh daripada tapak lombong aktif Cheng
Yu, Bukit Besi. Antara ujian fizikal dan kimia yang digunakan ialah ion kromatografi
(IC) dan plasma induktif (ICP), prosedur ketoksikan ciri-ciri larut lesap
(toxicity characteristic leaching procedure, TCLP), dan mineralogi lempung
dengan menggunakan teknik XRD (X-ray diffraction ) dan XRF (X-ray
fluorescence). Ujian statik iaitu pengiraan asid-bes digunakan untuk meramal
potensi asid dan bes. Hasil analisis air menunjukkan air berasid dengan nilai
pH < 3.5 bersama kepekatan logam berat seperti Fe (822.03 mg/L) and sulfat
(4455.87 mg/L) yang tinggi. Pengiraan asid-bes batuan menunjukkan hasil yang
amat ketara dengan potensi pengeluaran asid yang tinggi (9.5 ke 155.0 kg CaCO3/tan).
Hasil daripada analisis fizikal dan kimia jelas menunjukkan bahawa kawasan
Bukit Besi berpotensi terdedah dengan pembentukan saliran lombong berasid.


Kata kunci: Saliran lombong berasid, logam berat, pengiraan asid-bes, analisis penjerapan



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Manuscript received 18 August 2020

Received in revised form 6 February 2021

Accepted 8 March 2021

Available online 30 November 2022


0126-6187; 2637-109X / Published by the Geological Society of Malaysia.


© 2022 by the Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) License 4.0.