Application of residual basalt for the cultivation of jasmine rice from northeastern Thailand; an example of the reduction of methane emissions

Author : Weerapon Kaew-in, Montri Choowong
Publication : Warta Geologi
Page : 170-179
Volume Number : 49
Year : 2023

Warta Geologi, Vol. 49, No. 3, December 2023, pp. 170–179

Application of residual basalt for the cultivation of jasmine rice from northeastern Thailand; an example of the reduction of methane emissions

Weerapon Kaew-in1, Montri Choowong2,*

1 Graduate School, Environmental Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
2 Center of Excellence for the Morphology of Earth Surface and Advanced Geohazards in Southeast Asia (MESA CE), Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 Thailand

* Corresponding author email address:

Abstract: The cultivation of rice in mainland Southeast Asia countries is concerned with the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) today. Methane is one of the GHG gases originating from long flooding periods of rice growth. This paper aimed to experiment with the environmentally re-soil technique by adding residual basalt in the rice cultivation process with non-fertilizer usage and to shorten the flooding period as a consequence to reduce methane emissions. We apply wet-dry techniques in rice production to measure rice growth and yield. We analyzed the chemical qualities of residual basalt from the Khao Kradong, Buriram province, northeastern Thailand where extinct volcanoes and residual soils are extensively located nearby. A geological survey after processing the GIS data was carried out to specify the suitable residual basaltic sites. Then, residual basaltic soil from 7 profiles was analyzed by XRD and XRF. Then, the selected residual basalt was used for mixing with local soil in the jasmine rice experiment where the rice growth and yield, coupled with aromatic properties were observed. The results showed that the re-soil technique significantly and positively affected the height of rice, germination, number of ears, number of seeds per ear, and the total yield weight.The yield of the experiment is equal to the average yield of planting with chemical or organic fertilizers, but water is saved for 42 days. With a total cultivation period of 126 days, rice production can reduce water usage by 33.3%, with no need for fertilizers.

Keywords: Residual basalt, re-soil, methane, GHG, Khao Dawk Mali 105, Khorat Plateau


Abraham, A., Mathew, A. K., Sindhu, R., Pandey, A., & Binod, P., 2016. Potential of rice straw for bio-refining: An overview. Bioresource Technology, 215, 29-36.

Artyszak, A., 2018. Effect of Silicon Fertilization on Crop Yield Quantity and Quality—A Literature Review in Europe. Plants, 7, 54.

Berkhout, E., Glover, D., & Kuyvenhoven, A., 2015. On-farm impact of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI): Evidence and knowledge gaps. Agricultural Systems, 132, 157-166.

Carrijo, D.R., Lundy, M.E., & Linquist, B.A., 2017. Rice yields and water use under alternate wetting and drying irrigation: A meta-analysis. Field Crops Research, 203, 173-180.

Chang, J., Song, M., Yu, X., Bai, J., Jia, J., & Liu, M., 2018. Ecological and environmental impact of rice production in Shenyang, China. Journal of Agro-Environment Science, 37(8), 1793-1801.

Dastan, S., Ghareyazie, B., & Pishgar, S. H., 2019. Environmental impacts of transgenic Bt rice and non-Bt rice cultivars in northern Iran. Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, 20, 101160.

Dobermann, A., Witt, C., Dawe, D., Abdulrachman, S., Gines, H.C., Nagarajan, R., Satawathananont, S., Son, T.T., Tan, C.S., Wang, G.H., Chien, N.V., Thoa, V.T.K., Phung, C.V., Stalin, P., Muthukrishnan, P., Ravi, V., Babu, M., Chatuporn, S., Sookthongsa, J., Sun, Q., Fu, R., Simbahan, G.C., & Adviento, M.A.A., 2002. Site-specific nutrient management for intensive rice cropping systems in Asia. Field Crops Res., 74, 37-66.

Farooq, M.A., & Dietz, K.J., 2015. Silicon as Versatile Player in Plant and Human Biology: Overlooked and Poorly Understood. Front. Plant Sci., 6, 994.

Fukagawa, N.K., & Ziska, L. H., 2019. Rice: Importance for global nutrition. Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology, 65(Supplement), S2-S3.

Guerriero, G., Hausman, J. F., & Legay, S., 2016. Silicon and the Plant Extracellular Matrix. Frontiers in Plant Science, 7, __p.

Habibi, E., Niknejad, Y., Fallah, H., Dastan, S., & Tari, D. B., 2019. Life cycle assessment of rice production systems in different paddy field size levels in north of Iran. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 191, 1-23.

He, X., Qiao, Y., Liang, L., Knudsen, M. T., & Martin, F., 2018. Environmental life cycle assessment of long-term organic rice production in subtropical China. Journal of Cleaner Production, 176, 880-888.

IPCC, A., 2013. Climate change 2013: the physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change, 1535.

Jeswani, H.K., Hellweg, S., & Azapagic, A., 2018. Accounting for land use, biodiversity and ecosystem services in life cycle assessment: Impacts of breakfast cereals. Science of The Total Environment, 645, 51-59.

Kaew-in, W., & Choowong, M., 2023. Remote sensing and mineral analysis of residual basalt from Khao Kradong area, Buriram, northeastern Thailand for jasmine rice growth experiment. Bulletin of Earth Sciences of Thailand, 15(1), 60-69.

Kiese, R., Hewett, B., & Butterbach-Bahl, K., 2008. Seasonal dynamic of gross nitrification and N2O emission at two tropical rainforest sites in Queensland, Australia. Plant and Soil, 309, 105-117.

Liang, H., Xu, J., Hou, H., Qi, Z., Yang, S., Li, Y., & Hu, K., 2022. Modeling CH4 and N2O emissions for continuous and noncontinuous flooding rice systems. Agricultural Systems, 203, 103528.

Liao, B., Cai, T., Wu, X., Luo, Y., Liao, P., Zhang, B., & Cui, Y., 2023. A combination of organic fertilizers partially substitution with alternate wet and dry irrigation could further reduce greenhouse gases emission in rice field. Journal of Environmental Management, 344, 118372.

Liao, B., Wu, X., Yu, Y., Luo, S., Hu, R., & Lu, G., 2020. Effects of mild alternate wetting and drying irrigation and mid-season drainage on CH4 and N2O emissions in rice cultivation. Science of The Total Environment, 698, 134212.

Lin, H.-C., & Fukushima, Y., 2016. Rice Cultivation Methods and Their Sustainability Aspects: Organic and Conventional Rice Production in Industrialized Tropical Monsoon Asia with a Dual Cropping System. Sustainability, 8(6), 529. Retrieved from

Liu, Y., Li, H., Hu, T., Mahmoud, A., Li, J., Zhu, R., & Jing, P., 2022. A quantitative review of the effects of biochar application on rice yield and nitrogen use efficiency in paddy fields: A meta-analysis. Science of The Total Environment, 830, 154792.

Mahmood, A., & Gheewala, S.H., 2023. A comparative environmental analysis of conventional and organic rice farming in Thailand in a life cycle perspective using a stochastic modeling approach. Environmental Research, 116670.

Marschner, H., 1995. Mineral nutrition of higher plants 2nd edn. Institute of Plant Nutrition University of Hohenheim: Germany. 889 p.

Nozoye, T., Nagasaka, S., Kobayashi, T., Takahashi, M., Sato, Y., Sato, Y., & Nishizawa, N. K., 2011. Phytosiderophore efflux transporters are crucial for iron acquisition in graminaceous plants. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 286(7), 5446-5454.

Oo, A. Z., Sudo, S., Inubushi, K., Mano, M., Yamamoto, A., Ono, K., & Terao, Y., 2018. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions from conventional and modified rice cultivation systems in South India. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 252, 148-158.

Qaswar, M., Chai, R., Ahmed, W., Jing, H., Han, T., Liu, K., & Zhang, H., 2020. Partial substitution of chemical fertilizers with organic amendments increased rice yield by changing phosphorus fractions and improving phosphatase activities in fluvo-aquic soil. Journal of Soils and Sediments, 20, 1285-1296.

Ramírez-Olvera, S.M., Trejo-Téllez, L.I., Gómez-Merino, F.C., Ruíz-Posadas, L.D.M., Alcántar-González, E.G., & Saucedo-Veloz, C., 2021. Silicon Stimulates Plant Growth and Metabolism in Rice Plants under Conventional and Osmotic Stress Conditions. Plants (Basel), 10(4).

Römheld, V., & Marschner, H., 1986. Evidence for a specific uptake system for iron phytosiderophores in roots of grasses. Plant Physiology, 80(1), 175-180.

Rout, G.R., & Sahoo, S., 2015. Role of iron in plant growth and metabolism. Reviews in Agricultural Science, 3, 1-24.

Sukyankij, S., Thanachit, S., Anusontpornperm, S., & Kheoruenromne, I., 2020. Assessment of Soil Zn Availability for Khao Dok Mali 105 Rice: a Case study in Thailand. Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology, 23, 181-190.

Swe, M., Mar, S. S., Naing, T., Zar, T., & Ngwe, K., 2021. Effect of Silicon Application on Growth, Yield and Uptake of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) in Two Different Soils. OALib, 08, 1-15.

Xia, L., Lam, S. K., Yan, X., & Chen, D., 2017. How does recycling of livestock manure in agroecosystems affect crop productivity, reactive nitrogen losses, and soil carbon balance? Environmental Science & Technology, 51(13), 7450-7457.

Xu, D., Li, Y., Howard, A., & Guan, Y., 2013. Effect of earthworm Eisenia fetida and wetland plants on nitrification and denitrification potentials in vertical flow constructed wetland. Chemosphere, 92(2), 201-206.

Yang, B., Xiong, Z., Wang, J., Xu, X., Huang, Q., & Shen, Q., 2015. Mitigating net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensities by substituting chemical nitrogen fertilizers with organic fertilization strategies in rice–wheat annual rotation systems in China: A 3-year field experiment. Ecological Engineering, 81, 289-297.

Zakarya, I.A., Khalib, S.N.B., & Ramzi, N., 2018. Effect of pH, temperature and moisture content during composting of rice straw burning at different temperature with food waste and effective microorganisms. E3S Web of Conferences, 34. doi:10.1051/e3sconf/20183402019.

Zhang, X., Zhou, S., Bi, J., Sun, H., Wang, C., & Zhang, J., 2021. Drought-resistance rice variety with water-saving management reduces greenhouse gas emissions from paddies while maintaining rice yields. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 320, 107592.

Zhu-Barker, X., Doane, T. A., & Horwath, W. R., 2015. Role of green waste compost in the production of N2O from agricultural soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 83, 57-65.

Zuverza-Mena, N., Tamez, C., Borgatta, J., Guardado-Alvarez, T.M., & White, J.C., 2023. Accumulation of engineered nanomaterials by plants: environmental implications. In: G.D. La Rosa & J.R. Peralta-Videa (Eds.), Physicochemical Interactions of Engineered Nanoparticles and Plants, Academic Press, 295-326.

Manuscript received 29 August 2023;
Received in revised form 30 October 2023;
Accepted 4 December 2023
Available online 30 December 2023


0126-5539; 2682-7549

Published by the Geological Society of Malaysia.
© 2023 by the Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) License 4.0

Notice: Undefined index: request in /home/gsmorgmy/public_html/wp-content/plugins/jet-engine/includes/components/listings/render/listing-grid.php on line 1246