Physico-chemical characteristics and geochemical composition of soil from the former Air Terjun Mine, Kota Tinggi, Johor


Author : Sahibin Abd. Rahim, Tukimat Lihan, Zulfahmi Ali Rahman, Baba Musta, Adong Laming, Wan Mohd. Razi Idris, Muhd. Barzani Gasim & Siti Rahayu AwangPublication : Bulletin of the Geological Society of MalaysiaVolume : 55Page : 27-32Year : 2009DOI : https://doi.org/10.7186/bgsm55200905


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Bulletin of the Geological Society of Malaysia, Volume 55, November 2009, pp. 27-32

 

Physico-chemical characteristics and geochemical composition of soil from the former Air Terjun Mine, Kota Tinggi, Johor

Sahibin Abd. Rahim1, Tukimat Lihan1, Zulfahmi Ali Rahman1, Baba Musta2, Adong Laming2, Wan Mohd. Razi Idris1, Muhd. Barzani Gasim1 & Siti Rahayu Awang1

1School of Environmental and Natural Resources Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor

2School of Science and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia

 

Abstract—A study on physico-chemical characteristics and geochemical composition of soil from the former Air Terjun Mine, Kota Tinggi Johor was carried out. The mine was known to produce tin and iron until the end of 2001 when their operation ceased. A number of 15 topsoil (0 - 20 cm) samples were collected east way direction using ‘Dutch Auger’. Sampling area represented five different kinds of land use that were forest area (S1), open area (S2), pond edge (S3), sand tailing (S4) and river sediment (S5). Three soil samples were collected to represent every type of land use. The soil samples were determined for their physico-chemical characteristics and geochemical compositions. Major element compositions of soils were dominated by SiO2 followed by Fe2O3 and Al2O3. TiO2 and MnO content were less than 4.11% whereas K2O and P2O5 content were less than 1%. The range of concentration for heavy metal were 105-1066 μg/g for Zr , 31-107 μg/g for Pb, 149-723 μg/g for As, 23-319 μg/g for Zn, 15-586 μg/g for Cu, 5-15 μg/g for Ni, 7-144 μg/g for Co and 25-66 μg/g for Cr. The organic matter content ranged from 1.63 to 2.41%. Bulk density of some of the soil sample was high which indicates the presence of high density mineral. pH of the soil samples in the study area ranged from 3.81 to 5.20, thus acidic. The cation exchange capacity mean ranged from 1.19 to 5.41 cmol(+)/kg, whereas the electrical conductivity value ranged from 2.19 to 2.38 mS/cm.

Keywords: geochemistry, heavy metal, enrichment, pollution, Kota Tinggi

 

Ciri fiziko-kimia dan komposisi geokimia tanih daripada bekas lombong Air Terjun, Kota Tinggi, Johor

Abstrak— Kajian ciri fiziko-kimia dan komposisi geokimia tanih daripada bekas Lombong Air Terjun, Kota Tinggi, Johor telah dijalankan. Lombong ini diketahui mengeluarkan timah dan besi hingga ke hujung tahun 2001 apabila operasinya telah dihentikan. Sebanyak 15 sampel tanih atas (0-20 cm) telah dikutip dalam pada arah timur barat dengan menggunakan ’Dutch Auger’. Kawasan persampelan mewakili lima jenis guna tanah berbeza iaitu hutan (S1), kawasan terbuka (S2), pinggir kolam (S3), sisa pasir lombong (S4) dan sedimen sungai (S5). Sebanyak tiga sampel tanah dikutip untuk mewakili setiap jenis gunatanah. Sampel tanah yang dikutip telah ditentukan ciri fiziko-kimia dan komposisi geokimianya. Kompisisi unsur major dalam tanih didominasi oleh SiO2 diikuti oleh Fe2O3, dan Al2O3. Kandungan TiO2 dan MnO adalah kurang daripada 4.11%, manakala kandungan K2O dan P2O5 kurang daripada 1%. Kandungan purata logam berat adalah 105-1066 μg/g bagi Zr , 31-107 μg/g bagi Pb, 149-723 μg/g bagi As, 23-319 μg/g bagi Zn, 15-586 μg/g bagi Cu, 5-15 μg/g bagi Ni, 7-144 μg/g bagi Co dan 25-66 μg/g bagi Cr. Kandungan bahan organik adalah antara 1.63-2.41%. Ketumpatan pukal bagi sebahagian sampel adalah tinggi menunjukkan kehadiran mineral berat. Nilai pH mempunyai sela antara 3.81 hingga 5.20 menunjukkan keadaannya yang berasid. Kapasiti pertukaran kation mempunyai sela purata antara 1.19 hingga 5.41 cmol(+)/kg, manakala nilai kekonduksian elektrik mempunyai sela daripada 2.19 hingga 2.38 mS/cm.

Kata kunci: geokimia, logam berat, pengayaan, pencemaran, Kota Tinggi

https://doi.org/10.7186/bgsm55200905