Bulletin of the Geological Society of Malaysia, Volume 71, May 2021, pp. 79 – 87
Siti Noor Shafiqah Badrolhisham*, Abdul Halim Abdul Latiff
Department of Geosciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 32610 Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak Darul Ridzuan, Malaysia
* Corresponding author email address: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract: Peninsular Malaysia is susceptible to large magnitude earthquakes induced by the regional sources as it is surrounded by countries that are known for their active seismicity. Tremors were felt in Penang Island of Pulau Pinang due to earthquake events in Sumatra, Indonesia in 2005 and 2009. Presence of cracks on buildings in the island was reported caused by the earthquake on 2nd November 2002. The tsunami that hit the island on 26 December 2004 was the aftermath of the Great Sumatra-Andaman earthquake with magnitude 9.1. The investigation of earthquake risks ensures that the effect of earthquake disasters in the inclined region can be reduced effectively. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive seismic hazard assessment in Penang Island by analysing the predominant natural frequency distribution in Balik Pulau through a passive seismic survey method known as horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) and evaluating the ground motion throughout the island using probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) approach. The natural frequencies of Balik Pulau mostly falls in the range of 3 to 4 Hz which is associated with loose deposits and stiff soil layer. The amplification factor extracted from the HVSR curves ranges approximately 4 to 5. The minimum ground motions estimated for a fixed intensity in 50 years for Penang Island is 0.006 g1 and can reach up to 0.025 g. While the minimum ground motions for a fixed return period of 98 years in 50 years is 0.016 g with maximum of 0.035 g.
Keywords: Microtremor, seismic hazard, ground motions, earthquakes, Balik Pulau