Petrofacies investigations of the Cretaceous Pab Formation Rakhi Gorge Eastern Sulaiman Range Pakistan - Implication for reservoir potential

Author : Mubashir Mehmood, Shahid Ghazi, Abbas Ali Naseem, Muhammad Yaseen, Qamar uz Zaman Dar, Muhammad Jehangir Khan, Umair Sarwar, Arslan Zaheer
Publication : Bulletin of the Geological Society of Malaysia
Page : 37 - 46
Volume Number : 72
Year : 2021

Bulletin of the Geological Society of Malaysia, Volume 72, November 2021, pp. 37 – 46

Petrofacies investigations of the Cretaceous Pab Formation Rakhi Gorge Eastern Sulaiman Range Pakistan – Implication for reservoir potential

Mubashir Mehmood1,3,*, Shahid Ghazi2, Abbas Ali Naseem3, Muhammad Yaseen1, Qamar uz Zaman Dar4, Muhammad Jehangir Khan2, Umair Sarwar5, Arslan Zaheer2

1,* Department of Geology, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, 23200, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
2 Institute of Geology, University of the Punjab Lahore, 54590 Pakistan
3 Department of Earth Sciences, Quaid -e- Azam University Islamabad, 45320, Pakistan
4 Department of Geology, North West University Xian China 710069, China
5 Planning and Information Directorate, Geological Survey of Pakistan Quetta 87300, Pakistan
* Corresponding author email address:

Abstract: Petrologic investigations of the sixty representative thin sections from the Pab Formation within Rakhi Gorge section Eastern Sulaiman Range Pakistan have been used to characterize different diagenetic patterns, identification of primary composition and reservoir characters. Sublithic, lithic and quartzose sandstones have been the principal constituents of the formation. The processes responsible for the late-stage alteration and diagenetic processes identified during the petrographic study include compaction of lithic fragments and mud clasts, formation of quartz overgrowth structures, feldspar replacement and alteration, cementation, and replacement of grains by clay minerals other ferrous elements and diagenetic minerals. The study shows that the initial porosity has been primary intergranular, but the secondary porosity has been originated in the rocks as a result of the alteration of the primary and secondary constituents, as well as fracturing. These facies characters replicate the reservoir quality including, good, medium, low-quality, and non-reservoir. Samples displaying average total porosity greater than 10 % have been declared as good quality. While rocks samples having 7% or greater porosity are grouped as a medium reservoir. Those samples consisting of porosity values between 1 and 4% are considered as a low quality reservoir while those samples having porosity ranges low than 1% have been called non-reservoir. Based on the investigated parameters the studied samples from the Pab Formation displayed the characters of a medium reservoir that may hold significant hydrocarbon. This different quality including good and low quality zonation can be attributed to the facies and diagenetic change in the formation.

Keywords: Reservoir, Pab Formation, Cretaceous, diagenesis, petrography