The correlation between Rare Earth Elements and tin in granite, quartz vein, and weathered granite samples, in South Bangka, Bangka Belitung Islands, Indonesia

1a - Cover
Author : Armin Tampubolon*, Ildrem Syafri, Mega Fatimah Rosana, Euis Tintin Yuningsih
Publication : Bulletin of the Geological Society of Malaysia
Page : 73-85
Volume Number : 77
Year : 2024

Bulletin of the Geological Society of Malaysia, Volume 77, May 2024, pp. 73 – 85

The correlation between Rare Earth Elements and tin in granite, quartz vein, and weathered granite samples, in South Bangka, Bangka Belitung Islands, Indonesia

Armin Tampubolon1,2,*, Ildrem Syafri 1, Mega Fatimah Rosana1, Euis Tintin Yuningsih1

1 Faculty of Geological Engineering, Padjadjaran University, Dipati Ukur Street No. 35, Bandung 40132, West Java, Indonesia

2 Research Centre for Geological Resources, National Research and Innovation Agency, Sangkuriang Street No. 21, Bandung 40135, West Java, Indonesia

*Corresponding author email address:

Abstract: The presence of Rare Earth Elements (REEs) is often correlated with tin (Sn), particularly at placer deposits in the Bangka Belitung Islands. However, there is limited information on the correlation between Sn and REEs. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the correlation between REEs and Sn using data analysis of Sn-W, REEs, Y, Th, and U in granite, quartz veins, and weathered granite samples from South Bangka. The statistical analysis carried out using the Pearson correlation coefficient and multivariate processing showed that Sn-REEs have a weakly negative correlation. The examination of genetic aspects through chemical analysis, mineralogy, and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) data, showed that Sn and REE originated from the same magmatic fluids but different depositional phases due to magmatic-hydrothermal processes. The results show that REEs were formed during the early magmatic crystallization as mineral and stannite (Cu-Sn) in granite, while Sn was enriched as cassiterite in the deposition of late-stage hydrothermal fluid in parental granite. Moreover, the variation in deposition stage and temperature during the formation process is depicted in statistically uncorrelated values for Sn and REEs.

Keywords: Sn-REEs, stannite, cassiterite, Pearson coefficient, multivariate, genetic relationship


Abidin, H.Z., 1999. Toboali Alluvial Tin Deposit: Geology, depositional processes, and material sources. In: Baharuddin & Surawardi (Eds.), Metallogeni Sundaland Vol I. Indonesia Mining Journal, 1-12.

Abidin, H.Z., 2014. Toboali Alluvial Tin Deposit: Geology, depositional processes, and material sources. In: Baharuddin & Surawardi (Eds.), Metallogeni Sundaland Vol I. Geological Agency of Indonesia, 137-150.

Camilla, L.O., Geoffrey, R.N., Kathryn, H., Robert, S.F., Corby, G.A., & Frances, W., 2019. Apatite enrichment by rare earth elements: A review of the effects of surface properties. Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, 265, 14–28.

Chengyu, W.U., 2008. Bayan Obo Controversy: Carbonatites versus Iron Oxide-Cu-Au-(REES-U). Resource Geology, 58(4), 348 – 354.

Cobbing, E.J., Pitfield, P.E.J., Darbyshire, D.P.F. & Mallick, D.I.J., 1992. The Granites of the South-East Asian Tin Belt. Overseas Memoir 10, British Geological Survey. 369 p.

Crow, M.J. & Van Leeuwen, T.M., 2005. Metallic mineral deposits. Geological Society London Memoirs, 31, 147-174.

Faiz, A.P., Syarifuddin, M., Angger, I.A., Faric, R,S., Angga, W.Y. & Reza A., 2019. Structure System and It Controls to Mineralization of Primary Tin Deposit, Airdibi Area, Jebus Subdistrict, West Bangka, Bangka and Belitung. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1363.

Franco, P., 1992. Hydrothermal Mineral Deposits: Principles and Fundamental Concepts for the Exploration Geologists. Springer-Verlag, US. 709 p.

Franto, Subagyo, P. & Lucas, D.S., 2019.  The Study of Hydrothermal Alteration and Type Study of Primary Tin Mineralization in Tsk. Pengarem, Southern Bangka Island. IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 375, 012008.

George, J.S., Carlee, A. & Suzanne, P., 2015. Which materials are ‘critical’ and ‘strategic’. In: Simandl, G.J. & Neetz, M., (Eds.), Symposium on Strategic and Critical Materials Proceedings, November 13-14, 2015, Victoria, British Columbia. Geological Survey Paper 2015-3, 1-4.

Harlov, D.E., 2015. Apatite: A fingerprint for metasomatic processes. Elements, 11(3), 171-176. gselements.11.3.171.

Hua, R.M., Zhang, W.L., Gu, S.Y., & Chen, P.R., 2007. Comparison between REES granite and W-Sn granite in the Nanling region, South China, and their mineralizations. Acta Petrologica Sinica, 23(10), 2321-2328.

Hutchison, C.S., 2014. Tectonic evolution of Southeast Asia. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Malaysia, 60, 1-18.

Kurnia, S.W. & Priadi, B., 2013. Petrography and Geochemical Major Element of Granite, Bangka Island: Initial Evaluation of Tektonomagmatisme. Eksplorium, 34, 2, 1–16. (in Indonesian)

Kurniawan, A., 2014. Geology of Granitoid Rocks in Indonesia and Their Distributions (in Indonesian). Masyarakat Ilmu Bumi Indonesia (Indonesian Geography Society), 1/E-3. 16 p.

Liu, L., Hu, R.Z., Zhong, H.,Yang, J.H., Kang, L.F., Zhang, X.C., Fu, Y.Z., Mao, W., & Tang, Y.W., 2020. Petrogenesis of multistage S-type granites from the Malay Peninsula in the Southeast Asian tin belt and their relationship to Tethyan evolution. Gondwana Research, 84, 20-37.

Mangga, S.A., & Djamal, B., 1994. Geologic Map of North Bangka Quadrangle, Scale 1: 250,000. Geological Research and Development Centre.

Margono, U., Supandjonom, E. & Partoyo, E., 1995. Geologic Map of South Bangka Quadrangle, Scale 1: 250,000. Bandung. Geological Research and Development Centre.

Marker, H.J. Dirk, 2013. Perbedaan Genesa Magma antara Tin Bearing Granitoid Rocks dari Jalur Kepulauan Timah Indonesia dan Tin Barren Granitoid Rocks Dari Pulau Bintan. Jurnal Sumber Daya Geologi, 23(2), 81-92.

Murakami, H. & Ishihara, S., 2008. Fractionated Ilmenite series Granites in Southwest Japan: Source Magma for REES-Sn-W Mineralizations. Resouces Geology, 56(6), 245-256.

Ng, S.W.P., Martin, J.W., Whitehouse, M. J., Muhammad H.Roselee, M.H., Claudia, T., Sayed, M., Grahame, J.H.O., Azman, A.G. & Su-Chin, C., 2017. LateTriassic granites from Bangka, Indonesia: A continuation of the Main Range granite province of the South-East Asian Tin Belt. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 138, 548–561.

Reza, M.F., Trisa, M., Rudy, G., Tampubolon, A., Prima, M., & Kisman, 2018. Potential Evaluation of REES in South Bangka Regency, Bangka Belitung Islands Province, in related to Tin Deposits. Centre for Mineral Coal and Geothermal Resources (unpublished) (in Indonesian).

Schwartz, M.O. & Surjono, 1991. The Pemali tin deposit, Bangka, Indonesia. Mineral Deposita, 26, 18- 25.

Schwartz, M.O., Rajah, S.S., Askury, A.K., Putthapiban, P. & Djaswadi, S., 1995. The Southeast Asian Tin Belt. Earth-Science Reviews, 38, 95-293.

Shita, K., & Lucas, D.S., 2009. Characteristics of granitic rocks of Bangka Island, Indonesia, and their associated mineralization. Thesis S2 Teknik Geologi, UGM. (unpublished).

Soetopo, 2013. Studi Geologi dan Logam Tanah Jarang (REES) Daerah Air Gegas, Bangka Selatan, Eksplorium, 34(1), 51-62.

Tampubolon, A., Syafri, I., Rosana, M.F., & Yuningsih, E.T., 2022. The occurrence of primary REE minerals and their paragenesis within S-type granite and quartz veins, South Bangka, Bangka Belitung Islands, Indonesia (preprint).

Weng, Z.H., Gavin, M.M., Simon, M.J. & Nawshad, H., 2017. Assessment of Global Rare Earth Supply & Wind Energy Growth: Opportunities and Challenges, GREEsn and Sustainable Chemistry Conference, Berlin, Germany, 4-17th May.

Weng, Z.H., Jowitt, S.M., Mudd, G.M. & Haque, N., 2013. Assessing rare earth element mineral deposit types and links to environmental impact, Journal Applied Earth Science, 122, 83-107.

Yang, S.Y., Jiang S.Y., Zhao, K.D., Dai, B.Z., & Yang, T., 2015. Tourmaline as a recorder of magmatic–hydrothermal evolution: An in situ major and trace element analysis of tourmaline from the Qitianling batholith, South China. Contribution Mineral. Petrology, 170, article 42.

Zglinicki, K., Szamałek, K., & Wołkowicz, S., 2021. Critical Minerals from Post-Processing Tailing. A Case Study from Bangka Island, Indonesia. Minerals, 11(4), 352.

Manuscript received 17 August 2023;
Received in revised form 13 October 2023;
Accepted 26 December 2023
Available online 30 May 2024

0126-6187; 2637-109X / Published by the Geological Society of Malaysia.
© 2024 by the Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) License 4.0.