Groundwater exploration using vertical electrical sounding and 2D electrical resistivity tomography in shale formation: A case study of Sabongida, Plateau State, North Central Nigeria

Author : Solomon Nehemiah Yusuf, Hilnan Christopher Drenkat, Charity Mamza Azi
Publication : Warta Geologi
Page : 10-22
Volume Number : 48
Year : 2022

Warta Geologi, Vol. 48, No. 1, April
2022, pp. 10–22


Groundwater exploration using vertical
electrical sounding and 2D electrical resistivity tomography in shale
formation: A case study of Sabongida, Plateau State, North Central Nigeria


Solomon Nehemiah Yusuf1,*,
Hilnan Christopher Drenkat1, Charity Mamza Azi2

1 Department
of Geology, University of Jos, Bauchi Road, 930105, Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria

Department of Geology, Nasarawa State University, 911019, Keffi, Nasarawa
State, Nigeria

*Corresponding author email address:


Abstract: Sabongida is characterized by lots of abortive boreholes
which are often shallow as a result of the complex nature of shale formation in
the area and limited application of integrated geophysical techniques before
drilling of boreholes. The presence of shale formation in the area makes it
extremely difficult to drill productive boreholes, while the existing hand dug
wells are always shallow due to the difficulty in digging deeper wells, this
and other factors motivated the choice of the study location for the purpose of
proffering solutions to solve the perennial water problem in the area.
Twenty-two (22) vertical electric soundings data (VES) using Schlumberger array
with the aid of Ohms mega resistivity meter were conducted with electrode
spread of AB/2 = 215 m and eleven (11) 2D electrical resistivity tomography
data (ERT) using ADMT – 600 S – X equipment were acquired. ERT was conducted
using 20 m as the length of each profile with 300 m in 10 profile lines and 400
m as the depth of probing. The result of the VES interpretation shows three to
five geo-electric layers while the geo-electric section revealed the aquifers
to consist of sandstones with varying thicknesses. Two groundwater potential zones
were delineated as shelly sandstones and clayey sand. The different color band
indicates the different layers within the ground as the soil resistivity
varies, blue indicates low resistivity values, green – yellow indicates
moderate resistivity values while high resistivity values are brown – red. The
results from the 2D images indicate the low resistivity regions, suggesting
aquifer is within the depths of 150 to 300 m. Thus, the recommended depths for
drilling of productive boreholes are 180 to 210 m

and 270 to 300 m in Sabongida.


Keywords: Electrical, resistivity, 2D,
tomography, shale, aquifer, water scarcity



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Manuscript received 30 September 2021

Received in revised form 25 January 2022

Accepted 28 January 2022

Available online 26 April 2022


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